Mockito Inject Final Class

Mockito Continuous Integration and Deployment improvements. The DAO will do the query for database, however, consider we don’t have final query yet, use @Mock to simulate the JdbcTemplate behavior, so the code will not actually call the db. The next filter in the chain is injected into class. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover priyanka’s. Using Mockito @InjectMocks with Constructor and Field Injections Posted on December 26, 2017 by Karl San Gabriel There is a scenario to watch out for where we have class with a few instance variables of reference types but not all of them get initialized via a constructor. Since Mockito 2. Setup to mock final classes. I have seen lots of useful info so far. In mockito based junit tests, @Mock annotation creates mocks and @InjectMocks creates class objects. Dependency injection always occurs when the bean instance is first instantiated by the container. As a final example of the power of Mockito we will see how you can create custom responses from mocks that depend on the arguments of the call. You are testing the possibility of a decoration around your API. A test double replaces a class that we need in our test but that is not the focus of our test. xml the class is not marked as final anymore. Book Description. Mockito opt-in final class mocking Thanks to @nhaarman for pointing this out! Apparently, as of Mockito 2. The class under test is then annotated with the @InjectMocks annotation. Trying to test such a class with Mockito can be tricky. The example to mock is the System class. Whenever we can use Mockito over PowerMockito, we should! Stubbing static methods. Mockito Dependency. Creating spies of final classes with PowerMock Injecting test doubles instead of beans using Spring's code configuration The trick with void methods is that. initMocks(this) in a super class constructor then this will not work. Support for Java 8. Mockito will try to inject mocks only either by constructor injection, setter injection, or property injection in order and as described below. During loading of the class remove the final modifier. Method 1: When I say inject the key I actually mean inject a KeyFactory. Post summary: Examples how to mock static methods in JUnit tests with PowerMock. Guy Martin Proper Recommended for you. Needs java 1. Inject the key; Stub the method call and set the key there. When I read this post of Lubos Krnac last week, I thought I should explain why I think the use of InjectMocks is a bad signal and how you should avoid it. This enables us to check only the method of that given service class and whether they are performing as expected or not. Setup to mock final classes. A 20% restocking fee is assessed on all returns. , you can validate if certain methods on the mock object were called. When I read this post of Lubos Krnac last week, I thought I should explain why I think the use of InjectMocks is a bad signal and how you should avoid it. When using Mockito, you don’t need to create a special object, through which you can create mock object. Needs java 1. Mockito with PowerMock - Tutorial on Mocking final and static methods - Why does Mockito not allow stubbing final and private methods? (PowerMockRunner. In this tutorial, we focus on the following topics: setting up the test environment and writing. Remember that you have to annotate your test class with the @RunWith annotation, or the automatical mock injection will not be working. (All sales are final for International orders. ArgumentCaptor. This extends Part 4: Mockito & PowerMock for partially mocking private methods to mock "static" methods. We should look at how the URL class works and re-think what components we are mocking. Published 10:01 am EDT, Wednesday, October 30, 2019. Mockito extends Matchers so to get access to all matchers just import Mockito class statically. Unit Tests, Mock Objects and Mockito. “This is what the club needs now. Below you'll find some examples of how to use the Mockito extension API, aka PowerMockito. Mockito focuses on having a very simple and clean API to allow ease of use and a simple way to get started. Mockito can only mock non-private & non-final classes. To do this you need to prepare the class that invokes the method of the system class. This post discusses how to mock the context for testing outside the application container. All of this by its self goes a long way toward easy unit testing of GWT code, but there is a simple library that really ties it all together. JavaMockito code download. Shipping is non-refundable. initMocks(this) to initialise these mocks and inject them. x on Android 17 Jan 2017. Lets suppose you have a class with a static method and we want to stub out its behaviour. Thus, a element inside the or elements is called inner bean. x we have the ability to mock final classes and methods. Tag: spring,mockito,classcastexception. As far as I can tell, if you're not using a no-arg constructor, Mockito, which would normally instantiate the class to be injected with mocks, and then inject them, assumes you want constructor injection only and ignores the remaining @autowired dependencies. …We will use it to create a mock DateTime object…and define how we want it to behave…when the app asks for the current hour. In Mockito, you always check a particular class. Even more than I have written for Mockito which actually deserves better. That’s not clear? Let’s have an example with the following class hierarchy:. July 17, 2017, at 10:29 PM. Yes you are right that the mock class generated by CL_ABAP_TESTDOUBLE is based on global interface while the idea in Java Mockito is based on inheriting from a non-final class. Also note that the methods equals() and hashCode() cannot be mocked. Let's test the MathApplication class, by injecting in it a mock of calculatorService. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. The are at least two things to consider. When Mockito see this @InjectMocks, it doesn’t mock it, it just creates a normal instance, so the when() will be failed. add this in your gradle file: testImplementation 'org. Nageswar has 1 job listed on their profile. You can find it here. Mycila Testing Framework is an integration library that take care of all this code so that the developer can focuse on his tests. ArgumentMatchers class as static methods. As usual, when dealing with PowerMock, you have to be really sure of what you are doing. Mockito is not able to mock static or final classes - I'll show you how to do this by combining Mockito and PowerMock in the last chapter. webAppContextSetup(webApplicationContext). Now, if we want to test One, we need an instance of Another. In other words, you can mock final classes in Java and consequently all classes and member functions in Kotlin. Final class wont work Final method wont work Static method cannot be mocked Thread. …So, let's test the presenter. THE unique Spring Security education if you’re working with Java today. Be sure not miss Argument Matchers and Argument. 5, mocks created by Mockito. When the class is loaded to Mockito it will be a non-final class. I looked at the decompiled code of my test class and it extends the SampleImpl class and marks it as final when the aspectj is also in play but when it is commented out in my pom. How to mock local variables using mockito or powermock. Items will be shipped same day or by next business day (unless otherwise noted), depending on the time of day the sale closes. PredictionAudit is intended to set the “success” flag dependent on the transaction outcome and use the EntityManager to persist the. Augustine in St. The mock API invocation goes into when() which is a static Mockito API method and the value that we want the want the mock to return goes into the then() API. mockito:mockito-inline:2. Let's test the MathApplication class, by injecting in it a mock of calculatorService. Mockito doesn't mock final methods so the bottom line is: when you spy on real objects + you try to stub a final method = trouble. Mockito can create a mock of an abstract class even if there is no concrete implementation class. For example, if a suitable constructor is found, neither the setter injection nor the field injection will come to play. To solve it, annotate @spy to mock it partially. The following code examples are extracted from open source projects. Unit Testing Java EE 6 with Some Mockito. I felt that I had difficulty to figure out which package the classes used in the. A unit test should test functionality in isolation. Mockito shines when used against well encapsulated, loosely-coupled code. It may be a POJO with some additional business logic, a Hibernate/JPA DAO returning some entities from the database, or an HTTP call (via REST or SOAP) to an external system. Abstract classes cannot be instantiated (we cannot do new AbstractClass() in Java) so Mockito syntax is a bit more complex in this case. The inner is anonmyous inner class object provides corresponding mock values for buildTarget() and buildRequest(). Mocking of Static Methods "I'm using EasyMock or Mockito. Probably in most projects some kind of dependency injection framework is used. mockito:bangbang: simplify process mocking and testing. 0 Mockito provides the official (built-in) support for managing a mocking life cycle if JUnit 5 is used. After that we're going to take a look on how to mock static or final classes by extending Mockito's capabilities with PowerMock. Minimize repetitive mock and spy injection. In a more complicated case this may still not be enough to test a Jenkins class in isolation. The @InjectMocks annotation on the other hand is used to inject the mock or spy objects (from current class) in the specified class to instantiate an object. The @Mock annotation is used to create and inject mocked instances. You are testing the possibility of a decoration around your API. x, you'll get the following error: Mockito cannot mock/spy following: - final classes - anonymous classes - primitive types. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Nageswar’s connections and jobs at similar companies. Out of the box, Mockito cannot mock final classes and final or static methods, but if you really need it, Mockito 2 provides the experimental MockMaker plugin. raphw on Oct 3, 2016 This is actually not a requirement anymore. Here are instructions. OnceMockito found a constructor to try and to use it didn't even try to inject the two. x, you’ll get the following error: Mockito cannot mock/spy following: – final classes – anonymous classes – primitive types. Mockito won't work with final classes/methods, but there are a few workarounds: Add the open keyword to classes and methods that you'll mock. In case we need to verify that a method is being called with any argument and not a specific argument we can use Mockito. For this example I will use MessagesService class - MessageSender might be an abstract class which defines common basic functionality, like… sending messages!. Mockito is an open source mock unit testing framework for Java. ******* What You Can Expect from Every in28Minutes Course ******* in28Minutes created 20 Best Selling Courses providing Amazing Learning Experiences to 250,000 Learners across the world. Step 3 − Test the MathApplication class. Locate for sale right now on the internet. A spy helps to call all the normal methods of the object while still. @InjectMocks is the Mockito Annotation. Unfortunately you are not able to write good tests without the mock. 1925-P BUFFALO NICKEL, GOOD, GREAT PRICE!,2019 New Female Bag PU Bag Handbag Fshion Single Shoulder Slope Across Packages,1970 S PCGS PR65 Washington Quarter Proof. All product and packaging must be in new and unused resalable condition. MockitoException: Mockito cannot mock this class: class com. How do I use PowerMock / Mockito / EasyMock to use a mocked object for dependency injection? Wrapping utility classes and injecting them for unit testing purposes. This makes it easier to determine the impact of changes and fix them early during development. The next filter in the chain is injected into class. New 2020 Jaguar F-PACE 25t R-Sport SUV for sale - only $66,733. Hey I'm using Mockito and TestNG to write a unit test for a class that's making a lot of external calls to a service, I'm actually quite new to this hence I seem to be stuck with little documentation on the net for my exact problem. Overview Nếu bạn từng dùng Mockito để unit testing trong Android nhưng còn chưa hiểu rõ về các annotation của nó thì bài viết này dành cho bạn rồi. Constructor Based Injection - when there is a constructor defined for the class, Mockito tries to inject dependencies using the biggest constructor. In your class that is under test, you may have some private fields that are not accessible even through constructor. ArgumentMatchers class as static methods. In other words, you can mock final classes in Java and consequently all classes and member functions in Kotlin. Let’s see how to workaround this issue without any speed decrease. Mockito - thenReturn or thenAnswer? This post demonstrates that thenReturn is designed to return the same value every time the stubbed method is invoked and that thenAnswer provides a way to vary the returned values after each method invocation. @InjectMock creates an instance of the class and injects the mocks that are marked with the annotations @Mock into it. Best How To : @Inject is an annotation which is defined in Guice and is quite simliar to Spring @Autowire. The journey from JUnit to Mockito to Powermock is very well described. Mocking of final methods was even more problematic, causing surprising behavior of the framework and generating angry troubleshooting. class contains our private method. Mockito doesn't mock final methods so the bottom line is: when you spy on real objects + you try to stub a final method = trouble. People like the way how Mockito is able to mock Spring's auto-wired fields with the @InjectMocks annotation. We should look at how the URL class works and re-think what components we are mocking. If any of the following strategy fail, then Mockito won't report failure; i. Mockito has some good, example-oriented documentation that you can study. Since Mockito can't stub final methods, we'll use PowerMock to do it. when (instance). The dependency in that class is injected using mock object. Here's an example: Class I'm testing @Component public. Migration from CGLIB to ByteBuddy. powermock » powermock-release-with-junit-mockito-dependencies Apache Single jar containing binaries for PowerMock core, JUnit and Mockito modules. For all other stuff we're able to create mocks using Mockito. It allows you to mark a field on which an injection is to be performed. In case your are not familiar with JUnit please check the following JUnit Tutorial. Java Code Examples for org. Mam problem w jaki sposób mockować/wskazać mockowi, że ma wykonać prawdziwą metodę, która jest dostarczana za pomocą dependency injection (np. x on Android 17 Jan 2017. 36-beta API)に書いてます。 思った挙動と異なっていたので、自分のためにメモ。次のようなSampleクラスがあったとする。 public class Sample { private final Hoge hoge; private final Fuga fu…. Once a test class is annotated with @SupportJaxRs then many JaxRs classes are available for injection. The following tutorial is based on an understanding of unit testing with the JUnit framework. The same service class which uses constructor injection looks as. Mockito class. Having said that, sometimes you run into legacy code you just have to work with and aren’t able to refactor due to circumstances. Because they are associated with the class rather than an instance, static methods cannot be overridden. The same cannot be said for static methods. Prerequisites. An injected field is a non-static, non-final field of a bean class, or of any Java EE component class supporting injection. when (instance). MockitoException: Mockito cannot mock this class: class com. The bytecode manipulation has to be done at runtime to mock such methods. We will unit test the Business Service using Spring Boot, Mockito and JUnit in two different approaches. Join the community of millions of developers who build compelling user interfaces with Angular. What I do, is to create a non-final class to wrap the final class and use as delegate. Cannot mock final Kotlin class using Mockito 2. Mycila Testing Framework is an integration library that take care of all this code so that the developer can focuse on his tests. mockito documentation: Mock final classes and methods. Mockito will try to inject mocks only either by constructor injection, setter injection, or property injection in order and as described below. java with Mockito v. However, if you work with a dreadful spaghetti code filled with tight-coupled classes, Mockito will not provide means sufficient to deal with it. I am unable to mock a Kotlin final class using Mockito 2. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has approved an application from the Navajo Nation under Section 1425 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to grant the tribe primary enforcement responsibility (or "primacy") for the underground injection control (UIC) program for Class II (oil and gas-related) injection wells. Get the class loader in place so that any class referenced in the unit test will use by the class loader; allow for our unit-test to be written like any other unit test. class contains our private method. Unit tests should be small tests (atomic), lightweight, and fast. xml the class is not marked as final anymore. For example, if a suitable constructor is found, neither the setter injection nor the field injection will come to play. Kotlin default final classes/methods. @RunWith(SpringJUnit4Runner. Setting up JUnit with Mockito. mock manually. Display the project dependencies. Android testing using Dagger 2, Mockito and a custom JUnit rule. Mockito, the open source mocking framework for unit tests written in Java, has finally released its version 2, labelled 2. mockito mockito-core test. Best How To : @Inject is an annotation which is defined in Guice and is quite simliar to Spring @Autowire. doThrow (new Exception ()). List Github. JSF: mocking FacesContext for unit tests Referencing the FacesContext directly in Java classes makes managed beans more difficult to unit test. Mockito is a fantastic mock library for Java. Visit Lexus Santa Monica in Santa Monica CA serving Brentwood, Inglewood and Pacific Palisades #2T2YZMDA6LC214693. Test-Driven Development with Mockito (2013) by Sujoy Acharya Instant Mockito (2013) by Marcin Grzejszczak Practical Unit Testing with JUnit and Mockito (2013) by Tomek Kaczanowski. 5, mocks created by Mockito. In order to test private methods, you will need to refactor the code to change the access to protected (or package) and you will have to avoid static/final methods. We can achieve this in one of the following ways: Inject the key Stub the method call and set the key there. You cannot mock a final class with Mockito, as you can't do it by yourself. Tapestry Testify is an extension to Apache Tapestry that allows you to write page and component tests very easily and have them run very efficiently. ObjectHandler. Below there are two unit tests. Mock final class Refactoring considerations. you will have to provide dependencies yourself. Let's take a look at the code snippet we wrote before, again for the TestNG framework. Mockito can only mock non-private & non-final classes. OnceMockito found a constructor to try and to use it didn't even try to inject the two. Mockito now offers an Incubating, optional support for mocking final classes and methods. Although Mockito cannot, by design, mock final classes, the delegation approach is possible. Since proxy pattern is created by extending it cannot mock static, private, final method, and constructor. Commanding enormous flagships and smaller squadrons of fighters on the tabletop provides a surprisingly authentic experience that will appeal to fans of both Star Wars and tactical board games. To solve it, annotate @spy to mock it partially. Watch out for final methods. Our class to test will be an implementation of a filter that counts characters and can be part of a chain of filters. I recommend to inject the HttpClient to your class. This document presents two Maven example projects for mocking final and static methods using PowerMockito for Java unit testing. Abstract classes cannot be instantiated (we cannot do new AbstractClass() in Java) so Mockito syntax is a bit more complex in this case. @InjectMock creates an instance of the class and injects the mocks that are marked with the annotations @Mock into it. priyanka has 5 jobs listed on their profile. When Mockito's InjectMocks Does Not Inject Mocks canno be mocked by Mockito (it's a final class). Yes you are right that the mock class generated by CL_ABAP_TESTDOUBLE is based on global interface while the idea in Java Mockito is based on inheriting from a non-final class. Remember that you have to annotate your test class with the @RunWith annotation, or the automatical mock injection will not be working. doThrow (new Exception ()). Instead of assert methods, we use Mockito verify statements. You can find it here. I looked at the decompiled code of my test class and it extends the SampleImpl class and marks it as final when the aspectj is also in play but when it is commented out in my pom. Mockito is a testing framework that allows you to easily create test doubles (mocks) of the system under test's collaborators. 5, mocks created by Mockito. Introduction. Watch out for final methods. - [Instructor] Wait, we did all that…just to have to add work exactly the same?…What's the point?…Remember, we are trying to isolate the presenter…from Android classes so that we can test it…on the JVM which is much faster. If you're not sure why you're getting this error, please report to the mailing list. I'm able to see that the right mock values are generated by debugging. Mockito cannot mock this class: interface com. Test-Driven Development with Mockito (2013) by Sujoy Acharya Instant Mockito (2013) by Marcin Grzejszczak Practical Unit Testing with JUnit and Mockito (2013) by Tomek Kaczanowski. Mockito focuses on having a very simple and clean API to allow ease of use and a simple way to get started. mockito:mockito-inline:2. While writing unit tests, you often have to mock dependencies like services or controllers. Mockito now offers an Incubating, optional support for mocking final classes and methods. Mocking final/static classes/methods is possible with Mockito v2 only. Let’s check two examples I implemented and help me understand how mock works. Skip to content. priyanka has 5 jobs listed on their profile. To achieve this task of writing test cases for a class in isolation from the others, there are times when we need to mock some objects or data while writing our JUnit test cases. When I read this post of Lubos Krnac last week, I thought I should explain why I think the use of InjectMocks is a bad signal and how you should avoid it. When Mockito see this @InjectMocks, it doesn’t mock it, it just creates a normal instance, so the when() will be failed. Mock final class Refactoring considerations. Java 8 is pretty cool. Previous In this post, we will see about Mockito Mock static method. Sequential Mockito verifications refactoring with fluent interfaces. Fortunately, there’s a simple solution: PowerMock. You cannot mock a final class with Mockito, as you can't do it by yourself. Maybe some tips are not consider as the best practices by the Spring Boot, Mockito, EasyMock and/or TDD folllowers but for me and my team they are so useful when we write and run the Unit Test for medium or high complexity classes. Here's the issue I'm running into. You shouldn't need to use it with well-written code. We do not create real objects, rather ask mockito to create a mock for the class. Spying with Mockito - to call or not to call a method I just wrote the following two classes using JUnit 4. Here's how it can be done. That’s not clear? Let’s have an example with the following class hierarchy:. Even more than I have written for Mockito which actually deserves better. Using Mockito 2. OK, I Understand. This extends Part 4: Mockito & PowerMock for partially mocking private methods to mock "static" methods. OnceMockito found a constructor to try and to use it didn't even try to inject the two. initMocks(this) to initialise these mocks and inject them. Mockito will try to inject mocks only either by constructor injection, setter injection, or property injection, in order. standaloneSetup(controller). Introduction. For Mockito, there is no direct support to mock private and static methods. but on running it, Mockito would complain indicating that it cannot mock a class/method that is final. In other words, you can mock final classes in Java and consequently all classes and member functions in Kotlin. You cannot mock a final class with Mockito, as you can't do it by yourself. I have since switched my methodologies to use constructor injection for required dependencies and setter injection for optional dependencies. However, an object under test might have dependencies on other objects. A spy helps to call all the normal methods of the object while still. A 20% restocking fee is assessed on all returns. To make the experiment yourself of how the code documents your application, you can navigate to the complete test class written in BDD style and try to derive it from there: you'll get the idea instantly. , you can validate if certain methods on the mock object were called. To create a basic JUnit 4 test class, create a class that contains one or more test methods. In my Cucumber Runner class, I have @RunWith(Cucumber. 7 videos Play all Mockito-in 28 Minutes Vijay India Guy's maiden voyage on his hydrofoil boat | Guy Martin Proper - Duration: 7:09. In case your are not familiar with JUnit please check the following JUnit Tutorial. Ok, we are going to start with an example: you are moving from Java to Kotlin and you write your first two classes in Kotlin class:. The @Mock annotation is used to create and inject mocked instances. InjectMocks annotation actually tries to inject mocked dependencies using one of the below approaches: Constructor Based Injection - Utilizes Constructor for the class under test. As an example let’s take Mockito and implement custom rule which will initialize Mocks in test class. As far as I can tell, if you're not using a no-arg constructor, Mockito, which would normally instantiate the class to be injected with mocks, and then inject them, assumes you want constructor injection only and ignores the remaining @autowired dependencies. can't be extended). 36-beta API)に書いてます。 思った挙動と異なっていたので、自分のためにメモ。次のようなSampleクラスがあったとする。 public class Sample { private final Hoge hoge; private final Fuga fu…. Mockito will try to inject mocks only either by constructor injection, setter injection, or property injection in order and as described below. In the following example - we'll create a mocked ArrayList with the manual way without using @Mock annotation:. Once Mockito found a constructor to try and to use it didn’t even try to inject the two fields (lazy bastard). persistence context to work with jpa). It implement random class name derivation mechanism, payload obfuscation, in-memory execution without any call to IEX nor IWR and an EventViewer logs removal through a WMI un-subscription method. OnceMockito found a constructor to try and to use it didn’t even try to inject the two. Mockito is my favorite choice for this task, it gets the job done and gets out of the way. Kotlin default final classes/methods. See examples in javadoc for Mockito class. The functionality is very simple. Use @InjectMocks to create class instances which needs to be tested in test class. Skip to content. Using Mockito @InjectMocks with Constructor and Field Injections Posted on December 26, 2017 by Karl San Gabriel There is a scenario to watch out for where we have class with a few instance variables of reference types but not all of them get initialized via a constructor. Mock will be created by Mockito. , you can validate if certain methods on the mock object were called. Although it will work in simple cases, it tends to behave strangely in more complex classes, as pointed out by in a recent thread on the Mockito mailing list: “since 1. Any "live" business logic component relies on interactions with other components. initMocks(this) to initialise these mocks and inject them. You cannot mock a final class with Mockito, as you can't do it by yourself. An example of this is TwitterFactory class, and this is my mockable class:. Using PowerMock to Mock Static Methods In a recent blog, I tried to highlight the benefits of using dependency injection and expressing the idea that one of the main benefits of this technique is that it allows you to test your code more easily by providing a high degree of isolation between classes, and coming to the conclusion that lots of. Here, after the final immunization, we observed that while all doses of mLT led to similar levels of anti-LTB IgG, dmLT, used at 2. Spring Framework 3. Minimize repetitive mock and spy injection. java 2007 Mockito contributors * This program is made available. This is quite straightforward together with initializing the. In this short article, we'll focus on how to mock final classes and methods - using Mockito. you will have to provide dependencies yourself. mockito:mockito-core:1. Get started now ️. Having said that, sometimes you run into legacy code you just have to work with and aren’t able to refactor due to circumstances. Apache Wicket is a component based web application framework which offers good unit testing capabilities. There are great features of Mockito 2. Mockito can only mock visible & non-final classes Posted on February 28, 2016 by Manohar Bhattarai — No Comments ↓ While using Test Driven Development(TDD) we need to mock class/interface for the testing purpose. Quinn has 8 jobs listed on their profile. Here, we use its mock() method to mock the DataService, and inject the mock into the SomeBusinessImpl class. It looks like the inner class is acting on one part, and all the code I write is acting on the other part. add this in your gradle file: testImplementation 'org. MockitoException: Cannot mock/spy class org. You have been charged with the crime of not testing your code! How do you plead? Will anyone Testify in your defense?. That’s not clear? Let’s have an example with the following class hierarchy:. Use @InjectMocks when actual method body needs to be executed for a given. Setup to mock final classes. This class cannot be unit tested without Spring because it provides no way to pass in a UserRepository instance. Mockito is my favorite choice for this task, it gets the job done and gets out of the way. To do this you need to prepare the class that invokes the method of the system class. The following example shows how to mock up the dependencies for your system under test or SUT. See also AdditionalMatchers. Class1 static method modifies passed in object instead of returning any results. It allows users to use the same techniques when mocking classes or interfaces as there is only one kind of mock and one way of creating mocks. my test looks like this basically. build() The first approach will automatically load the Spring configuration and inject WebApplicationContext into the test. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: