Group By Alias Soql

The grouping criterion is defined by the GROUP BY clause, which follows the WHERE clause in the SQL clause hierarchy. Another way to qualify column names is by using table aliases. GROUP BY and ORDER BY can also refer to a third group: Integer literals, which refer to items in the SELECT list. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Samad’s connections and jobs at similar companies. GROUP BY stage_id My actual requirement is to group by using the alias name. The use of table aliases is to rename a table in a specific SQL statement. It can be useful in cases when field names in a model change, but you have pre-existing URLs to queries that you want to keep functioning. SQL WHERE IN Examples Problem: List all suppliers from the USA, UK, OR Japan SELECT Id, CompanyName, City, Country FROM Supplier WHERE Country IN ('USA', 'UK', 'Japan'). Chamberlin and Raymond F. Syntax of Alias for table names, SELECT column-name FROM table-name AS. I cover this in How to Write Better Queries. For Example: To select the first name of all the students, the query would be like:. Bryan, I don't have a clue how to answer your question, because, to be honest, I've never seen an SQL statement like yours before. Learn a bit about data types and database design. A query containing a GROUP BY clause is a Grouping Query. PostgreSQL. SELECT column1. Many products (like SQL Server) do allow this, but it is a non-standard extension of the ISO/ANSI SQL-92 specification (and I don't think that later SQL specifications included this). The WITH (nolock) hint is an explicit command directed at a specific table or view used to set the transaction isolation level against the table or tables within a view for a query. Insights of SOQL and Relationship Queries on Force. It is valid only when used to refer to columns that are calculated in the immediate query expression. To combine data from two tables we use the SQL JOIN command, which comes after the FROM command. A SparkSession can be used create DataFrame, register DataFrame as tables, execute SQL over tables, cache tables, and read parquet files. GROUP BY Syntax. SQL Aliases. In this case, the so-called implicit grouping is applied, meaning all selected rows are considered to form a single group and HAVING can be applied on any of the aggregate functions specified on this group. FROM mytable. Some tbls will accept functions of variables. This is the problem, the alias has been set to the same as the name, the display name is the same also. By configuring the SQL-alias in all environments (and make it point to the database-server for that specific environment), the connectionstring can be the same in. first_column_alias:. SQL SELECT AS is used to assign temporary names to table or column name or both. When you create SQL queries, you shouldn't have to export the data to Excel. Now let's play with transaction data for a while. Alias for Tables Example The following SQL statement selects all the orders from the customer with CustomerID=4 (Around the Horn). SQL Alias Syntax for Tables. ORA-00979 not a GROUP BY expression. SQL column aliases are used to make the output of your SQL queries easy to read and more meaningful:. SQL Query Builder Grouping. A query containing a GROUP BY clause is a Grouping Query. Since SQL Server does not support database aliases, there are two possibilities: 1. SQL aliases are a useful feature and are available in all major database vendors, including Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL. Thank You for your reply. Filter and order results of a query based on aggregate functions. to perform mathematical calculation on data retrieved by SOQL query. An alias only exists for the duration of the query. The basic syntax of a GROUP BY clause is shown in the following code block. "Group By" clause is used for getting aggregate value (example: count of, sum of) in one or more columns with reference to a distinct column in a table. Standard SQL does not allow you to use an alias in the GROUP BY clause, however, MySQL supports this. 위와 동일한 GROUP BY 의 SQL 구문은 아래와 같습니다. Review the different types of SQL, and then learn how to filter, group, and sort data, using built-in SQL functions to format or calculate results. Unless otherwise stated, group functions ignore NULL values. SQL aliases can be used with database tables and with database table columns, depending on task you are performing. So the alias in the select doesn't exist yet. Alias is mainly used for giving a short alias name for a column or a table with complex names. Is there another command to do this with powershell? any ideas? thanks. In situations like this, you'd need to use the GROUP BY clause. To implement group by on alias column name in sql server we need to use the whole expression in group by clause or we need to wrap all sql query statements in subquery and implement grouping on outside of the statement. LEFT ANTI JOIN Select only rows from the left side that match no rows on the right side. Introduction to SQL GROUP BY clause. Copy and paste the following SQL to your SQLyog free Community Edition query window. Since the alias of a columns or expression is only effective from step 5 but the WHERE clause is evaluated as step 2, it is clear that an alias. I would have demonstrated it with your query - had I been given a full example with creates and such. A good rule of thumb when using GROUP BY is to include all the non-aggregate function columns in the SELECT statement in the GROUP BY clause. The grouping criterion is defined by the GROUP BY clause, which follows the WHERE clause in the SQL clause hierarchy. We should also provide the Availability Group Listener name in the –S parameter and the Availability Group database name in the –d parameter. The SQL ORDER BY OFFSET syntax The general syntax to exclude first n records is: SELECT column-names FROM table-name ORDER BY column-names OFFSET n ROWS To exclude first n records and return only the next m records: SELECT column-names FROM table-name ORDER BY column-names OFFSET n ROWS FETCH NEXT m ROWS ONLY. The column alias is displayed as the column header in the result set. I have a case statement similar to this one in the same query as a couple of SUM functions. The GROUP BY clause groups records into summary rows. CustomerID ORDER BY Demographics. Content tagged with use alias. Sub-total rows are rows that further aggregate whose values are derived by computing the same aggregate functions that were used to produce the grouped rows. For example, if the group-by-item is 2, then the results are grouped by the values in the second column of the SELECT clause list. Aggregate Functions with Group BY and HAVING clause: We use aggregate functions SUM, COUNT, AVG, MAX, MIN etc. If the prefixed column alias that is specified in the ORDER BY clause is a valid column name in the specified table, the query executes without error; in SQL Server 2014, the semantics of the statement might be different. Advanced Features Multi-Group-By Inserts. Variables to group by. There will be one row returned for each unique combination of the columns mentioned in the GROUP BY clause. All tbls accept variable names. 2 days ago · Group by an Alias issue. Define alias. ";Order By" clause is used to sort the resulting rows in the order of specified column or colum. Note: Although JPA supports native queries with SQL, the Database. "Group By" clause is used for getting aggregate value (example: count of, sum of) in one or more columns with reference to a distinct column in a table. Integers can be substituted for column names (that is, SELECT object-items) in the GROUP BY clause. A column alias is displayed with the specified letter case; it is not, however, case-sensitive when referenced in an ORDER BY clause. An alias name could be anything, but usually it is short. Insights of SOQL and Relationship Queries on Force. However, column name does not matter, since for whatever the name we are defining a Group By query will selects and display results by grouping the particular column values. An assumed name: The swindler worked under various. SQL column aliases are used to make the output of your SQL queries easy to read and more meaningful:. Re: How to use fields alias name in sql query? Does it not a weakness of sql server 2000, once we got a complicated calculation resulte in a coloumn, which might be 2 or three row in length does it not better to reuse this coloumn again where other calcuation may base upon its result. Posted by Michael Meyers-Jouan (Software Developer) on Jun 24 at 1:24 PM Mark as helpful. Leave a reply. Upon the connection’s DNS request, the DNS server responds to the CNAME request for the alias with the A record data for the actual server. Posts about group by with total written by Vishal. An SQL column alias is a name that you can give to a column in a query. SQL GROUP BY Clause. Use a SELECT statement to retrieve data. At some point, someone thought this would be good to get their group at. com platform. Back up and restore your database to protect your data. I also tried to put the SUBSTRING expression and alias in the GROUP BY and refer to it in the SELECT by it's alias and that didn't work either. Apply aggregation functions to group records together. WHERE, GROUP, HAVING all occur on the whole data table before the select. Use a WHERE clause in a query containing a GROUP BY clause to eliminate rows before grouping occurs. Some of the alias name are. SQL, or Structured Query Language, is a programming language that was designed to query data from a relational database. Alias column names for a linq query. If a group function is used in the SELECT clause, Column aliases cannot be used in a GROUP BY clause. Alvarez and Wong come from two separate rows in the table, but they are reported together in one row because one is the minimum and one is the maximum. Term: GROUP BY. GROUP BY. SQL ROLLUP examples. You can also find the aggregate value for each group of column values. Aliases can be very useful for moving databases between different SQL servers and ease scaling out the SharePoint environment. The GROUP BY clause has the following general format: GROUP BY column-1 [, column-2] column-1 and column-2 are the grouping columns. The GROUP BY clause: MySQL vs. alias like 'A%' group by alias order by deletedmessages No records found. This can be a good thing to do if you have very long or complex table names or column names. WHERE C1 = 3. ORA-00979 not a GROUP BY expression. Some of the alias name are. The entry point to programming Spark with the Dataset and DataFrame API. Posted by Michael Meyers-Jouan (Software Developer) on Jun 24 at 1:24 PM Mark as helpful. Passing calculated columns in the Where and Group by clause in T-SQL Introduction Suppose we have a calculated Column that is a result of some complex calculation and we want to refer it in a where clause (or a group by clause). Along with 16+ years of hands on experience he holds a Masters of Science degree and a number of database certifications. Pour récupérer la liste des produits en même temps que la catégorie auquel il appartient il est possible d’utiliser une requête SQL avec une jointure. SparkSession(sparkContext, jsparkSession=None)¶. Mệnh đề GROUP BY trong SQL - Học SQL cơ bản nâng cao. , Named Pipes) Enter. Advanced Features Multi-Group-By Inserts. The GROUP BY clause must contain only aggregates or grouping columns. Please let me know if this clarifies the situation for you. A tab loads showing you the execution log. It cannot be reused in SELECT, cannot be used in WHERE or GROUP BY. For more information, see Section 12. Content tagged with sql, group by. The WHERE clause limits the rows evaluated. Search within aggregate groups with HAVING. It seems very weird. Now I can use a truly descriptive name, rather than be restricted to the abbreviated field name that can only be up to 10 characters long. Now let's play with transaction data for a while. Content tagged with use alias. A query containing a GROUP BY clause is a Grouping Query. The grouping will take place based on the order of the columns listed in the GROUP BY clause. 6, in Chapter 9, we gave several rules for the use of aggregation functions in the SELECT clause. standard SQL. Well I would probably have found the solution somewhere else, but your page was high up in the google result list ("group by" avg), and your explanation is easy to understand even for somebody whose DB experience consists of a few attempts to use MS Access. In the query. The reason is that the WHERE clause filters the database records before the groups are created by the database engine. In situations like this, you'd need to use the GROUP BY clause. This is most. SQL ROLLUP examples. On MSDN you can look at SELECT (Transact-SQL): Logical Processing Order of the SELECT statement. NULLs are considered equivalent for grouping purposes. AS provides an alias which can be used to temporarily rename tables or columns. I also tried to put the SUBSTRING expression and alias in the GROUP BY and refer to it in the SELECT by it's alias and that didn't work either. SQL aliases are a useful feature and are available in all major database vendors, including Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL. The following statement uses the GROUP BY clause and the SUM() function to find the total inventory by warehouse:. Filed Under: SQL Server Tagged With: alias column name in sql server, alias name for column in sql server, dynamic column alias t-sql, group by column alias t-sql, how to give alias name for column in sql server, how to use alias column name in where clause sql server, how to use alias column name in where clause sql server how to use alias. So how we can differenciate , because under select we cannot defi. If you want to specify multiple levels of grouping that should be computed at once, you use the following ROLLUP syntax:. This is different to most other database management systems such as Oracle and SQL Server. Additionally, you can consider creating multiple aliases to support SQL scaling for dedicated databases for search, content, service app DBs etc. An aggregate query without a GROUP BY clause always returns exactly one row of data, even if there are zero rows of input data. SQL AS temporarily assigns a table column a new name. See Practice #6-1, #6-2, #6-3. Datasets can be used to select, insert, update and delete records. GROUP BY typically also involves aggregates: COUNT, MAX, SUM, AVG, etc. Column aliases cannot be used in a group by clause. org was created to help you to learn how to use Oracle database, Oracle Forms and Reports, SQL*Plus and PL/SQL language simple and fast. Summary: in this tutorial, you will learn how to use the SQL Server ROLLUP to generate multiple grouping sets. We use the "Customers" and "Orders" tables, and give them the table aliases of "c" and "o" respectively (Here we use aliases to make the SQL shorter):. You cannot use an alias in the GROUP BY clause because a query is logically processed as follows: 1). Integers can be substituted for column names (that is, SELECT object-items) in the GROUP BY clause. For example, the following query extracts the year from the order date. Part of the issue is that there is very little documented about the PIVOT command beyond the most basic Pivot query syntax. We will use expressions in the extended relational algebra (see section 5. Use a SELECT statement to retrieve data. Posted by Michael Meyers-Jouan (Software Developer) on Jun 24 at 1:24 PM Mark as helpful. The following statement illustrates how to use the column alias:. Mittels GROUP BY kann man Zeilen gruppieren und mit den SQL Funktionen weitere Berechnungen durchführen. Different databases have different writtings:. COLUMN ALIASES are used to make column headings in your result set easier to read. In each group, no two rows have the same value for the grouping column or columns. Variables to group by. - [Narrator] In this lesson, we'll introduce…table aliases and column aliases. Introduction to SQL GROUP BY clause. The two sql statements you originally posted will end up with the same records, but one will have the variable's flag, two and three, and the other will have the variable's one, two and three. Tag: mysql. Chamberlin and Raymond F. ORA-00979 not a GROUP BY expression. name FROM character AS c. Aggregate Functions with Group BY and HAVING clause: We use aggregate functions SUM, COUNT, AVG, MAX, MIN etc. This article gives an overview of the functionality available for aggregation in data warehouses, focusing specifically on the information required for the Oracle Database SQL Expert (1Z0-047) exam. In this post, I am sharing a script to perform concatenation of strings by applying GROUP BY in SQL Server. When you don't use aliases, SQL will automatically assign a column name such as "Column1" to the summarized data set. This alias will be listed in a query instead of the field name. The GROUP BY clause is processed before the SELECT clause, so the alias is not known when the GROUP BY clause is evaluated. Querying with JPQL. ungroup() removes grouping. We can use the keyword DESC to sort the data in descending order and the keyword ASC to sort in ascending order. Creating SQL Alias for SharePoint enables you to change the Database Server of your SharePoint Farm! This will be a great help during disaster recovery, virtualization or migrations. Second, the GROUP BY clause groups the selected rows by OrderID. An SQL column alias is a name that you can give to a column in a query. You and Diana are both using numbers as if they were column references. Count() and Sum() with group by and column alias : Group BY « Select Query « SQL Server / T-SQL. "Group By" clause is used for getting aggregate value (example: count of, sum of) in one or more columns with reference to a distinct column in a table. Smart Pivot Tricks: Multiple Pivots, Aliases, Dynamic Pivots. The alias parameter provides alternative names for a field that might appear in the URL for a query. (The Total column alias is used for formatting the output). to perform mathematical calculation on data retrieved by SOQL query. SQL aliases are a useful feature and are available in all major database vendors, including Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL. class pyspark. > > We are a small group (6 people) developing tools for interactive > access to information. The Oracle GROUP BY clause is used in a SELECT statement to collect data across multiple records and group the results by one or more columns. This section describes a number of important rules that relate to select blocks with a GROUP BY clause. More details about SQL Server are available in the SQL Server documentation. SQL WHERE IN Examples Problem: List all suppliers from the USA, UK, OR Japan SELECT Id, CompanyName, City, Country FROM Supplier WHERE Country IN ('USA', 'UK', 'Japan'). Cause: The GROUP BY clause does not contain all the expressions in the SELECT clause. Alias for Tables Example The following SQL statement selects all the orders from the customer with CustomerID=4 (Around the Horn). Introduction to the SQL Server ROLLUP. In this Salesforce Training Tutorial we are going to learn about advanced SOQL statements like what are the different SOQL escape sequences, SOQL date formats and SOQL date literals. SQL CONCAT Function is used to Concatenate (combine) 2 or more strings. You will want to repeat the following steps for each SharePoint server in your farm. One can argue that it should be the first value or the lowest value but we all agree that there are multiple possible options. The SQL GROUP BY Statement. A SQL-alias can be used as a reference to a database-server. Generally, it’s best practice to put unique constraints on a table to prevent duplicate rows. Hey Everyone, Here's a basic question about pointing applications and services to my Availability Group. LEFT ANTI JOIN Select only rows from the left side that match no rows on the right side. A tab loads showing you the execution log. The following statement illustrates how to use the column alias:. This is known as creating Alias in SQL. Term: GROUP BY. PostgreSQL extends each of these clauses to allow the other choice as well (but it uses the standard's interpretation if there is. Navigate to C:\Windows\SysWOW64\cliconfg. Alias is mainly used for giving a short alias name for a column or a table with complex names. A query containing a GROUP BY clause is a Grouping Query. MySQL supports two kinds of aliases which are known as column alias and table alias. Content tagged with use alias. You will want to repeat the following steps for each SharePoint server in your farm. In this section, we will talk about Aliases, In and the use of subqueries, and how these can be used in a 3-table example. GROUP BY can group by one or more columns. org was created to help you to learn how to use Oracle database, Oracle Forms and Reports, SQL*Plus and PL/SQL language simple and fast. SQL Tuning is not about adding an index to the table or adding hints or rewriting the query, it is all about understanding how oracle works and most importantly how the CBO makes use of the table and column level statistics, histograms, constraints, datatypes, system statistics and other optimizer transformation applied to build an efficient plan. how to group by alias column name in sql server or alias column name in sql server or how to use group by on an alias column in sql server. This is known as creating Alias in SQL. Hive does away with this guessing by making it invalid SQL (HQL, to be precise) to have a column in the select clause that is not included in the group by clause. PostgreSQL. It cannot be reused in SELECT, cannot be used in WHERE or GROUP BY. In This Video You Will Learn the How and Why of Aliasing Columns in Your SQL Statements Learn to use aliases to temporarily rename a column heading. Aliases can be very useful for moving databases between different SQL servers and ease scaling out the SharePoint environment. Click on OK to make the change. A group that contains multiple nulls doesn't imply that the nulls equal one another. All tbls accept variable names. This is quite useful in case of large or complex queries. I am a researcher in the Interactive > Information Group of the National Research Council of Canada. TABLE ALIASES are used to shorten your SQL to make it easier to read or when you are performing a self join (ie: listing the same table more than once in the FROM clause). Mittels GROUP BY kann man Zeilen gruppieren und mit den SQL Funktionen weitere Berechnungen durchführen. Варто зазначити, що ключове слово AS є цілком опціональним і зазвичай ставиться для забезпечення читаності. Rate this: alias name in sql for columns. Advanced Features Multi-Group-By Inserts. but why should I have to calculate the ua_prefix 3 times? In MySQL I can alias the SUBSTRING() expression as "ua_prefix" and then refer to it later in the query. Describes a step-by-step method that you can use to connect to a named instance of SQL Server 2005 or of SQL Server 2000 by using the client tools in an earlier version of SQL Server. A query containing a GROUP BY clause is a Grouping Query. This GROUP BY clause follows the WHERE clause in a SELECT statement and precedes the ORDER BY clause. The SQL HAVING clause is similar to WHERE clause available in SQL since both the clauses help in filtering data from the result set. so now the there should be just one row for ""toolbox"" and number of hits would be the sum (23+12+. ORDER BY specifies an order in which to return the rows. This article gives an overview of the functionality available for aggregation in data warehouses, focusing specifically on the information required for the Oracle Database SQL Expert (1Z0-047) exam. Copy and paste the following SQL to your SQLyog free Community Edition query window. All tbls accept variable names. The reason is that the WHERE clause filters the database records before the groups are created by the database engine. 03/01/2019; 14 minutes to read +4; In this article. First, we'll look at our SQL queries with the ORDER BY and then GROUP BY functions, respectively. Note we are using aliases (as) to generate our own column names. to perform mathematical calculation on data retrieved by SOQL query. How many people are in each unique state in the customers table? Select the state and display the number of people in each. To give a column a descriptive name, you can use a column alias. Often application connection strings are configured using an alias (DNS CNAME), rather than the actual host name (A record) of the SQL Server. Optionally it is used in conjunction with aggregate functions to produce summary reports from the database. , use alias. Pinal Dave is a SQL Server Performance Tuning Expert and an independent consultant. Alias is mainly used for giving a short alias name for a column or a table with complex names. The following illustrates the syntax of the table alias:. The alias parameter provides alternative names for a field that might appear in the URL for a query. SQL ALIASES can be used to create a temporary name for columns or tables. SELECT - GROUP BY- Transact-SQL. I am building a flat file with a mix of fields that contain literals and data from columns in other tables. The Basics of Querying in FoxPro with SQL SELECT (Lesson I Single Table Queries) The idea behind a query is to take a large database, possibly consisting of more than one table, and producing a “result set”, which is a smaller table of rows and columns reflecting a subset of. The basic syntax to alias a column in SQL is as follows: AS In this example, is the name of the column that you want to alias, and is the alias you want to assign to the column. Integers can be substituted for column names (that is, SELECT object-items) in the GROUP BY clause. Syntax of Alias for table names, SELECT column-name FROM table-name AS. Here are some examples of how you can use them. How to check If SQL Server is suing Kerberos authentication?. The following table can be used as an example of database distribution and grouping:. What is the alias notation in SOQL ? Alias notation in SOQL statements are used to distinguish different object used in a single SOQL Statement. WHERE, GROUP, HAVING all occur on the whole data table before the select. This is most. Hi All, The outline of my problem is this. Passing calculated columns in the Where and Group by clause in T-SQL Introduction Suppose we have a calculated Column that is a result of some complex calculation and we want to refer it in a where clause (or a group by clause). Cette requête peut utiliser des alias pour éviter d’utiliser à chaque fois le nom des tables. how to group by alias column name in sql server or alias column name in sql server or how to use group by on an alias column in sql server. An alias name could be anything, but usually it is short. SQL Alias Syntax for Tables. In a GROUP BY query with columns like "SUM(sales)" etc. 2 in the book) interpreted over sets as logical query plans. One such issue is the use of aliased users. The two sql statements you originally posted will end up with the same records, but one will have the variable's flag, two and three, and the other will have the variable's one, two and three. Welcome to the fourth installment of this SAP HANA SQL Scripts core concepts section where we try to understand how to use SQL GROUP BY to aggregate rows of data, learn IN and BETWEEN clauses for applying filter with multiple values and also how to sort data using ORDER BY. Aliases are often used to make column names more readable. For example, the following query extracts the year from the order date. SQL Server has a lot of little features that are nice to use, but sometimes these things come back to get you. Select StDev Query. Anonymous said This is so timely. 위와 동일한 GROUP BY 의 SQL 구문은 아래와 같습니다. It first uses year as an alias of the expression YEAR(orderDate) and then uses the year alias in the GROUP BY clause. Just as with SQL Server Configuration Manager, the Server alias is what the application will attempt to connect to. Because PostgreSQL evaluates the ORDER BY clause after the SELECT clause, you can use the column alias in the ORDER BY clause. I am building a flat file with a mix of fields that contain literals and data from columns in other tables. GROUP BY. select skip 10 id, name from People order by name asc. This paper will assume that the reader is a capable SAS programmer, but is fairly uninformed about Proc SQL. Compared with SQL, however, HQL is fully object-oriented and understands notions like inheritance, polymorphism and association. Flashcards. As a workaround, use an alias for the expression: SELECT id, FLOOR(value/100) AS val FROM tbl_name GROUP BY id, val; MySQL permits noncolumn expressions in GROUP BY clauses, so the alias is unnecessary:. GROUP BY and ORDER BY can also refer to a third group: Integer literals, which refer to items in the SELECT list. WHERE, GROUP, HAVING all occur on the whole data table before the select. SQL ALIASES can be used to create a temporary name for columns or tables. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. I can able to connect to correct instances either by using SQL Alias Names or Static Ips. LEFT ANTI JOIN Select only rows from the left side that match no rows on the right side. WHERE, GROUP, HAVING all occur on the whole data table before the select. Definition: The Oracle PL/SQL GROUP BY clause enables establishing data groups based on columns. Sur une table qui contient toutes les ventes d’un magasin, il est par exemple possible de liste regrouper les ventes par clients identiques et d’obtenir le coût total des achats pour chaque client. The GROUP BY clause in Access combines records with identical values in the specified field list into a single record. SQL aliases are a useful feature and are available in all major database vendors, including Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL. Insights of SOQL and Relationship Queries on Force. SQL COUNT() with GROUP by: The use of COUNT() function in conjunction with GROUP BY is useful for characterizing our data under various groupings. The primary statement used to query a database is the SELECT statement. so whatever you want the outer query to reference in the GROUP BY and ORDER BY clauses, you have to make sure to qualify those column names with something. Oracle SQL Training Oracle SQL Course: Structured Query Language (SQL) is the set of statements with which all programs and users access data in an Oracle database or SQL-type databases. SELECT - GROUP BY- Transact-SQL. SQL; Description. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: